Maria Do Sameiro Barroso
Portugal

This article presents Abu'l-Qasim Khalaf ibn 'Abbas al-Zaharawi, Arabic أبو القاسم خلف بن عباس الزهراوي, Latin Albucasis (936-1013 A.D.), one on the most outstanding Arabic physicians and the most remarkable Arabic surgeon. His work had a strong impact in middle ages. Greek-Roman surgery had almost ceased to be practiced, in the Western world, after Paul of Aegina (625-690 A.D.), the last Byzantine compiler. Albucasis took for himself the task of making of surgery an honorable art. He recovered ancient surgical texts from damaged scrolls, developed, expanded and refined Greek-Roman operations, adding his own pioneer techniques, procedures, and devising his own instruments. His clear and insightful teachings laid the foundations of accurate and safer surgical procedures that were adopted in the following centuries.

Jean François Tessier
Chargé de Recherche honoraire à l’INSERM, Institut d’Epidémiologie Santé Publique et Développement, Université de Bordeaux (France)

On a pu qualifier Ibn Khaldoun d’esprit universel. Politique, historien, philosophe, homme de sciences, père de la sociologie, juriste, poète, l’homme pourrait mériter tous ces qualificatifs. Son œuvre majeure est le Kitab al Ibar (le livre des exemples), un projet ambitieux d’Histoire des Berbères et des Arabes auquel il consacrera une grande partie de sa vie. Si les informations souvent inédites contenues dans cet ouvrage constituent une mine d’information pour les historiens, notamment sur l’Histoire du Maghreb, c’est l’introduction, la Muqaddima qui a valu à Ibn Khaldoun sa célébrité. Il est vrai que cette introduction constitue à elle seule une espèce d’encyclopédie sur le savoir et la société de son temps en même temps qu’un jugement critique d’une grande indépendance d’esprit qui pourrait être comparée à celles des encyclopédistes français du XVIIIe siècle ou, plus proche de son temps, des humanistes de la Renaissance.

Pr. Nil Sarı/ Turkey

Introduction

“Khamsa”(Hamsa) is an Arabic word that means "five", but also "the five fingers of the hand". Khamsa is also a popular symbol found throughout the Middle East and North Africa from antiquity to the present day. Early use of the Khamsa has been traced to ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) as well as ancient Carthage (modern-day Tunisia). The Khamsa hand relics exist in various religious cultures, i.e. Hindu, Hebrew, Christian and Muslim. While Quran law prohibits the wearing of charms and amulets, the Khamsa symbol is often depicted in and associated with Islamic cultures. The palm-shaped amulet known as the Fatima’s Hand is found throughout the Middle East and North Africa as a popular symbol of protection. The Khamsa is believed by some Muslims and others to provide defense against evil eye, illness, death or just general unluckiness, as well as to bring it’s owner happiness, luck, health, and good fortune. [1]

Fatima’s Hand relics designed for the protection of individuals or the household against disease as well as all kinds of evil are carried as a pendant, used as a stand and finial (‘alam) or created as talisman stamps. These objects also represent blessings, power and strength.

Dr. ZohorIdrisi
Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization (UK)

Although the western Omeyyadcaliphatehad brought ancient knowledge across to North Africa and Spain,yet in the 10th century the famous physician AzZahrawi[i](d.1013C.E.) was complaining "that medical science had regressed to the extent that no longer was anyone acquainted with anatomy let alone surgery”.It seemedto him that most of the ancient heritage was being lost due to neglect and lack of research. Hence he was insisting that the functions of all organs, their interrelation and the role of the nerves, veins and arteries should be seriously studied.